An analysis of the romanticism in the mid eighteenth century of europe and united states

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An analysis of the romanticism in the mid eighteenth century of europe and united states

Enlightenment

Europe, to The term " Enlightenment " refers to a loosely organized intellectual movement, secular, rationalist, liberal, and egalitarian in outlook and values, which flourished in the middle decades of the eighteenth century. Although it was international in scope, the center of gravity of the movement was in France, which assumed an unprecedented leadership in European intellectual life.

The cosmopolitanism of the Enlightenment was genuine, however. It was a German admirer of d'Alembert and Diderot, Immanuel Kantwho produced the most enduring definition of the movement.

In a famous essay ofKant defined enlightenment as "emancipation from self-incurred tutelage" and declared that its motto should be sapere aude —"dare to know. But the common aspiration defined by Kant—knowledge as liberation—is what permits us to see a unified movement amid much diversity.

ORIGINS In a long-term perspective, the Enlightenment can be regarded as the third and last phase of the cumulative process by which European thought and intellectual life was "modernized" in the course of the early modern period.

Its relation to the two earlier stages in this process— Renaissance and Reformation—was paradoxical. In a sense, the Enlightenment represented both their fulfillment and their cancellation. As the neoclassical architecture and republican politics of the late eighteenth century remind us, respect and admiration for classical antiquity persisted throughout the period.

Yet the Enlightenment was clearly the moment at which the spell of the Renaissance—the conviction of the absolute superiority of ancient over modern civilization—was broken once and for all in the West.

The Enlightenment revolt against the intellectual and cultural authority of Christianity was even more dramatic.

History of Europe - Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – | plombier-nemours.com

In effect, the Protestant critique of the Catholic church—condemned for exploitation of its charges by means of ideological delusion—was extended to Christianity, even religion itself. At the deepest level, this is what Kant meant by "emancipation from self-incurred tutelage": What made this intellectual liberation possible?

The major thinkers of the Enlightenment were in fact very clear about the proximate origins of their own ideas, which they almost invariably traced to the works of a set of pioneers or founders from the mid-seventeenth century.

First and foremost among these were figures now associated with the "scientific revolution"—above all, the English physicist Isaac Newtonwho became the object of a great cult of veneration in the eighteenth century. Similarly honored were the founders of modern " natural rights " theory in political thought— Hugo GrotiusHobbes, Locke, and Samuel Pufendorf.

These thinkers did not see themselves as engaged in a common enterprise as did their successors in the Enlightenment. What they did share, however, was the sheer novelty of their ideas—the willingness to depart from tradition in one domain of thought after another.

Nor is it an accident that this roster is dominated by Dutch and English names or careers. For the United Provinces and England were the two major states in which divine-right absolutism had been successfully defeated or overthrown in Europe. If the ideological idiom of the Dutch Revolt — and the English Revolutions —, remained primarily religious, their success made possible a degree of freedom of thought and expression enjoyed nowhere else in Europe.

The result was to lay the intellectual foundations for the Enlightenment, which can be defined as the process by which the most advanced thought of the seventeenth century was popularized and disseminated in the course of the eighteenth.

What these countries did provide, however, was the indispensable staging ground for the central practical business of the movement, the publication of books. For most of the century, Amsterdam and London—together with the city-states of another zone of relative freedom, Switzerland—were home to the chief publishers of the Enlightenment, many of whom specialized in the printing of books for clandestine circulation in France.

For France was the leading producer and consumer of "enlightened" literature in the eighteenth century, occupying a dominant position in the movement comparable to that of Italy in the Renaissance or Germany in the Reformation.

The reasons for this centrality lie in the unique position of France within the larger set of European nations at the end of the seventeenth century.Literature: Literature, a body of written works.

The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre.

ENLIGHTENMENT [1] ENLIGHTENMENT.

An analysis of the romanticism in the mid eighteenth century of europe and united states

The term "Enlightenment [2]" refers to a loosely organized intellectual movement, secular, rationalist, liberal, and egalitarian in outlook and values, which flourished in the middle decades of the eighteenth century. Synopsis.

At the end of the 18 th century and well into the 19 th, Romanticism quickly spread throughout Europe and the United States to challenge the rational ideal held so tightly during the plombier-nemours.com artists emphasized that sense and emotions - not simply reason and order - were equally important means of understanding and experiencing the world.

HIST Mid Term. STUDY. Which country was the third largest in Europe at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and by the end of the century was completely dissolved?

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Poland. What problem did the nineteenth-century United States share with Germany and Italy that slowed industrial development? Influences on the Romantic Period Romanticism spawned in the late 18th century and flourished in the early and midth century.

An analysis of the romanticism in the mid eighteenth century of europe and united states

Romanticism emphasized the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, the transcendental, and the individual. The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.

The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient plombier-nemours.com, the Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean plombier-nemours.com fall of the Roman Empire in AD traditionally marks the .

Romanticism Versus Enlightenment - TV Tropes