How did the English Crown come to acquire a third of France in the form of Aquitaine? Pretty well by chance — and a salutary example of the Law of Unintended Consequences He kept their daughters and, critically for what happened next, she kept her lands.
As a younger son of an aristocratic family it was expected of him that he would seek a career in the army or another gentlemanly profession. For several years after Cavour was a lieutenant of engineers in the Sardinian army.
By these times he had developed liberal and anti-clerical views so the succession to the Sardinian throne of Charles Albert, whose own views were thought to be somewhat conservative and clericalist, caused Cavour to resign his commission in From these times Cavour interested himself in politics, foreign travel and practical agriculture.
He took notice of the way a July revolution of in France was followed by the historic French monarchy adopting a liberal and constitutional aspect under King Louis Phillipe.
He became convinced of the benefits of constitutional monarchy in relation to either monarchical despotism or populist republicanism.
He applied his knowledge of agriculture to the family's estates and greatly raised their productivity. This aspect of his life being continued through his sponsorship of a Piedmontese Agricultural Society.
Cavour also promoted modernisation in industry and industrial infrastructure being a champion of the development of factories and the use of steam ships and railways. In there was a papal succession with the new pope being a person who was thought to hold relatively liberal and somewhat "Italian" nationalist views.
Previous holders of the papal dignity had been notably conservative and had recently allowed the Austrian minister Metternich to effectively intervene in the Papal territories and more widely in the Italian penisula in the suppression of such populist radicalisms as liberalism, republicanism and nationalism.
This intervention moreover occured against a background where the Austrian Empire directly and indirectly controlled many territories in the Italain peninsula. Several early measures adopted by the incoming Pope, including a political amnesty, tended to encourage an acceptance that there was now, unprecedentedly, a "liberal" Pope and the associated view that liberalism and Italian nationalism now had something of a patron in office in the Vatican.
In Cavour helped to found the newspaper Il Risorgimento The Resurgencea Turin based journal that advocated constitutional reform and had liberalist and nationalist leanings. In January there was a spate of unrest in support of liberalism and constitutionalism in Sicily, then incorporated in a Kingdom with Naples also known as the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
In response to these events Cavour urged constituional reform in Piedmont.
Cavour as editor of Il Risorgimento was widely influential in these times. The year was proving to be a "year of revolution" across much of western Europe. The longtime "architect of reaction" Metternich had resigned and was destined for exile.
Many rulers of greater or lesser German states had awarded constitutions. The Magyars of Hungary were attempting to show a legislative independence of the Austrian Empire of which the kingdom of Hungary was then a part.
On 25th March the Sardinian monarchy declared war on the Austrian Empire. In "war elections" of June Cavour became a member of the Sardinian chamber of deputies where he chose to present himself as a conservative.
Cavour lost his seat in the chamber upon its dissolution in January In March the Sardinian, and "Italian" forces, were overthrown by a resurgent Austrian Empire at a major battle of Novara. Charles Albert abdicated in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel.
In the July elections associated with this succession Cavour was again returned to the chamber of deputies. During the ministry of the Marchese Massimo d'Azeglio Cavour served in such important cabinet and ministerial positions as Agriculture and Finance and showed himself to be a politician of high ability but eventually resigned after a disagreement with d'Azeglio.
On 7th March Cavour had made a speech in the chamber where he had suggested that "Piedmont, gathering to itself all the living forces of Italy, would soon be in a position to lead our mother-country to the high destinies to which she is called. In November there was a cabinet crisis in Turin and Cavour was invited to lead a new ministry.
As Prime Minister Cavour promoted industrialisation and liberalism and also conducted the foreign affairs of the country with the aim of facilitating the joining of other territories in the Italian peninsula with the Sardinian state.
He allied Sardinia with Great Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia having received assurances that the situation in the Italian peninsula would be one of the items on the agenda at an eventual peace conference.
During this Crimean War Tsarist Russia received a military check and became diplomatically estranged from Austria.Maximilien Robespierre, in full Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, (born May 6, , Arras, France—died July 28, , Paris), radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution.
Early life. Maximilien de Robespierre was born in Arras in the old French province of plombier-nemours.com family has been traced back to the 12th century in Picardy; some of his ancestors in the male line worked as notaries in Carvin near Arras from the beginning of the 17th century.
It has been suggested that he was of Irish descent, his surname possibly a corruption of "Robert Speirs". French military successes served to undermine the justification for such ruthlessness and a conspiracy was formed to overthrow Robespierre. On 27 July , he was arrested after a struggle.
The following day Robespierre, wounded from a bullet to the jaw, and 21 of his closest supporters were executed at the guillotine. François-Thomas Germain ( – ) was a French silversmith, Sage, and Grand Master of the Parisian Rite of the Templar Order during the French Revolution. After experiencing visions of the First Civilization and reading the Codex Pater Intellectus, he took it upon himself to reform the.
Edmund Burke (/ ˈ b ɜːr k /; 12 January  – 9 July ) was an Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in served as a member of parliament (MP) between and in the House of Commons with the Whig Party..
Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the. Bravo. The French Revolution is still the historian ‘start’ for Modern History, because it was big break from royalty, and firm step towards democracy, with a lost of drama along the way.