Interestingly, Kant acknowledged that he had despised the ignorant masses until he read Rousseau and came to appreciate the worth that exists in every human being.
It is putting a very high value on one's conjectures, to have a man roasted alive because of them Montaigne, Essais From the earliest days philosophers were critical of Christianity. They found no substantial arguments, and pointed out a number of weaknesses in Christian reasoning.
Christians for their part were suspicious of philosophy which they regarded as at best unnecessary and at worst the work of Satan. As one authority writes of Tertullian's Accusations of the Gentiles He declares that the Holy Scriptures are a treasure from which all the true wisdom in the world has been drawn; that every philosopher and every poet is indebted to them.
As soon as they had the power to do so, Christians destroyed books of philosophy. This is why so little pagan philosophy has survived - those works of philosophy were not really "lost" - they were sought out and burned by zealous Christians.
This is why we know next to nothing about atheist philosophers such as Diagoras of Melos known as the Atheist of Milos and Theodorus the Atheist. As soon as Christians were able to do so, they sought the destruction of living philosophers as well.
Sopater of Apamea was a distinguished Neoplatonist philosopher. Sopater had had the temerity to critisise the dissolute lifestyles of the emperor and a powerful Christian called Ablabius. He was apparently accused of practising magic.
This accusation would become the standard accusation against philosophers who made any criticism of Christianity - like mathematiciansgenuine philosophers were thought to be in league with the devil and to consort with demons. Hypatia of Alexandria was particularly hated by Christians because she was not only a philosopher and a mathematicianbut also a woman.
She contravened biblical teaching about the role of women and consequently was murdered by a Christian mob, led by a bishop, in March Here is another bishop's account of her murder: And thereafter a multitude of believers in God arose under the guidance of Peter the magistrate - now this Peter was a perfect believer in all respects in Jesus Christ - and they proceeded to seek for the pagan woman who had beguiled the people of the city and the prefect through her enchantments.
And when they learnt the place where she was, they proceeded to her and found her seated on a [teaching] chair; and having made her descend they dragged her along till they brought her to the great church, named Caesarion.
Now this was in the days of the fast. And they tore off her clothing and dragged her through the streets of the city till she died. And they carried her to a place named Cinaron, and they burned her body with fire.
And all the people surrounded the patriarch Cyril and named him 'the new Theophilus'; for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in the city. You can read the full text by John, Bishop of Nikiu, here. He omits some of the gory details of her death, which we have from other sources.
The bishop, Cyril of Alexandria, later used his bands of violent monks to influence Christian"orthodoxy" and is now considered a saint. The death of Hypatia signaled a Christian uprising against the 'learned scholars' of Alexandria, and the end of the city as a centre of knowledge throughout the ancient world.
Her murder is generally held to mark the end of classical philosophy. In about the philosopher Boethius became magister officiorum head of all the government and court services to Theodoric the Great. Boethius was a man of science, a dedicated Hellenist keen on translating all the works of Aristotle into Latin and harmonizing them with the works of Plato.
For reasons unknown, but apparently politico-religious in nature, Theodoric, an Arian Christian, ordered Boethius killed.
Boethius was executed at the age of 44 years on 23rd October,after a period in prison during which he wrote his most famous work, Consolation of Philosophy. For a thousand years the only philosophers in Christendom were those the Church would allow.
Many thousands of men pursued "Scholasticism" - a philosophical dead end that is now of interest only to historians. Afew individuals investigated philosophy for themselves and were condemned as magicians or heretics for doing so, many of them dying in mysterious circumstances after their condemnation, or less mysteriously burned at the stake.
His fame won him much animosity from his fellow scholastics and he was repeatedly tried for heresy. He was charged with the heresy of Sabellianism at a provincial synod at Soissons inand his teachings were official condemned. He was made to burn his book before being shut up in the convent of St.
Later, in a Church council at Sens arraigned him on a number of new charges of heresy. His condemnation was confirmed by Rome a year later. He died on his way to Rome, intending to appeal. He lived at Paris, where he gave lessons in logic. He is said to have taught a kind of Pantheism.
Ten of his disciples were burnt at Paris 20 December, The Historical Dictionary of Descartes and Cartesian Philosophy includes many entries on Descartes's writings, concepts, and findings.
Since it is historical, there are other entries on those who supported him, those who criticized him, those who corrected him, and those who together formed one of the major movements in philosophy, Cartesianism. The Historical Dictionary of Descartes and Cartesian Philosophy includes many entries on Descartes's writings, concepts, and findings.
Since it is historical, there are other entries on those who supported him, those who criticized him, those who corrected him, and those who together formed one of the major movements in philosophy, Cartesianism.
René Descartes ( - ) was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer of the Age of plombier-nemours.com has been called the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of subsequent Western philosophy can be seen as a response to his writings.
He is responsible for one of the best-known quotations in philosophy: "Cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am").
MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. Remarks concerning twelve modern philosophers, from Francis Bacon to Bertrand Russell, and presenting a citizen standpoint involving a concluding discussion of science, one relating to the "against method" controversy associated with Paul Feyerabend.
René Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes, Indre-et-Loire), France, on 31 March His mother, Jeanne Brochard, died soon after giving birth to him, and so he was not expected to survive. Descartes' father, Joachim, was a member of the Parlement of Brittany at Rennes.
René lived with his grandmother and with his great-uncle. Immanuel Kant: Immanuel Kant, German philosopher who was one of the foremost thinkers of the Enlightenment and who inaugurated a new era of philosophical thought.