Artistic research[ edit ] The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.
I therefore decided to also develop a format for a quantitative research article. What are the different sections included in a scientific article? Note that journals might have their own requirements, but you can use this as a general guideline: The title page includes a title for your article that describes the content or the main result of the paper, when it was conducted and where.
The better the title, the easier it is for those interested in your study to find it. This page also includes the authors names, institutional affiliations and details for correspondence. The abstract should summarize the major aspects of the entire article, but you can only use a limited number of words in general Guideline is to use sentences per section of the paper introduction, methods, results, discussionalthough the results often require some more lines.
So from the Introduction you take the question s you investigated or purpose of the study. The basic design and methods used are taken from the next section. The major findings that answer the question s are taken from the Results Research result.
And finally, your conclusion based on the results and implications are taken from the Discussion. Most readers will decide based on the abstract if they will retrieve the full text. Although this is one of the first sections of the article, it is the last to be written.
Note that you should not include any references in the abstract. The Introduction should contain the following sections: If you have written a research proposal for the study, this are all things that you have written down before.
However, it should be much more concise in an article, and furthermore, new literature might have been published during the time you were doing your study so include these here.
This section goes from general what is reported in the literature, what is done in practice to more specific your study. The problem statement is a concise description of the nature of the problem the discrepancy between what is and what should be and of the size, distribution and severity of the problem who is affected, where, since when, and what are the consequences.
Use a literature review original research papers and review articles to provide this context. Go from general to specific e.
If you are doing a study on adherence to HIV treatment in South Africa, start with some information on the HIV epidemic, then the treatment options and lastly the issues with adherence. And within these sections start with global evidence, then Africa, then South Africa.
Note that extensive descriptions of studies with the same objective will be included in the Discussion section. A brief description of any solutions to the problem that have been tried in the past should be given, how well they have worked, and why further research is needed.
Again, use literature to support this. The significance of the study is a description of the type of information expected to result from the project and a clarification of how this information will be used to help solve the problem contribution to existing knowledge.
And finally, you have a general objective general aim or purpose of the study which is derived from the research topic and specific objectives which are based on your general objective.
The Results section will be guided by these objectives. Note that the study itself can have more objectives, but you only mention those that will be answered in this article.
The Methods section contains the following items: Sometimes you can refer to other articles published on the same larger study. Then you can limited yourself here to the essentials for the objectives covered in this article. And again, this should all have been included in your proposal, although changes might have occurred when executing the study.
The study design is often explained in one sentence e. Then you continue to describe the study setting e.Format for a quantitative research proposal. I teach quantitative research proposal writing to public health students.
By using lectures, a case study and discussion of presentations of the students own research proposals, I try to familiarize them with the contents of a research .
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Supporting high quality research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to improve EPA's scientific basis for decisions on national environmental issues. Safer ads, and safer data, rather than consent.
These results are not definitive, and we have not undertaken a full scale research project in the production of this note.
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