The German-language name Deutschland is derived from a Germanic root meaning volk, or people. A document written in Latin from the Frankish court of C. From this point forward, the term deutsch was employed to mark a difference in speech, which corresponded to political, geographic, and social distinctions as well. Since, however, the Frankish and Saxon kings of the early Middle Ages sought to characterize themselves as emperors of Rome, it does not seem valid to infer an incipient form of national consciousness.
See Article History Alternative Title: Romanic languages Romance languages, group of related languages all derived from Vulgar Latin within historical times and forming a subgroup of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The major languages of the family include FrenchItalianSpanishPortugueseand Romanianall national languages. Catalan also has taken on a political and cultural significance; among the Romance languages that now have less political or literary significance or both are the Occitan and Rhaetian dialectsSardinianand Dalmatian extinctamong others.
Of all the so-called families of languages, the Romance group is perhaps the simplest to identify and the easiest to account for historically. Not only do Romance languages share a good proportion of basic vocabulary—still recognizably the same in spite of some phonological changes—and a number of similar grammatical forms, but they can be traced back, with but few breaks in continuityto the language of the Roman Empire.
So close is the similarity of each of the Romance languages to Latin as currently known The romanic thesis a rich literature and continuous religious and scholarly tradition that no one doubts the relationship.
For the nonspecialist, the testimony of history is even more convincing than the linguistic evidence: Later European colonial and commercial contacts with parts of the Americasof Africaand of Asia readily explain the French, Spanish, and Portuguese spoken in those regions.
General considerations Origins and distribution The name Romance indeed suggests the ultimate connection of these languages with Rome: The fact that the Romance languages share features not found in contemporary Latin textbooks suggests, however, that the version of Latin they continue is not identical with that of Classical Latin as known from literature.
Nonetheless, although it is sometimes claimed that the other Italic languages the Indo-European language group to which Latin belonged, spoken in Italy did contribute features to Romance, it is fairly certain that it is specifically Latin itself, perhaps in a popular form, that is the precursor of the Romance languages.
By the beginning of the 21st century, some million people claimed a Romance language as their mother tongue, million people as a second language. To that number may be added the not-inconsiderable number of Romance creole speakers a creole is a simplified or pidgin form of a language that has become the native language of a community scattered around the world.
French creoles are spoken by millions of people in the West IndiesNorth Americaand islands of the Indian Ocean e. Many speakers use creole for informal purposes and the standard language for formal occasions.
Romance languages are also used formally in some countries where one or more non-Romance languages are used by most speakers for everyday purposes. Although its influence has waned before the growing popularity of English as an international language, French is still widely used today as a second language in many parts of the world.
The wealth of French literary traditionits precisely formulated grammar bequeathed by 17th- and 18th-century grammarians, and the pride of the French in their language may ensure it a lasting importance among languages of the world.
By virtue of the vast territories in which Spanish and Portuguese hold sway, those languages will continue to be of prime importance. Classification methods and problems Though it is quite clear which languages can be classified as Romance, on the basis primarily of lexical vocabulary and morphological structural similarities, the subgrouping of the languages within the family is less straightforward.
Shared features in each subgroup that are not seen in other such groups are assumed to be ultimately traceable to languages spoken before Romanization. On the basis of a few heterogeneous phonetic features, one theory maintains that separation into dialects began early, with the Eastern dialect areas including central and south Italy developing popular features and the school-influenced Western speech areas maintaining more literary standards.
Beyond this, the substrata indigenous languages eventually displaced by Latin and superstrata languages later superimposed on Latin by conquerors are held to have occasioned further subdivisions. Within such a schema there remain problem cases. Do the Rhaetian dialects group together, even though the dialects found in Italy are closer to Italian and the Swiss ones closer to French?
Sardinian is generally regarded as linguistically separate, its isolation from the rest of the Roman Empire by incorporation into the Vandal kingdom in the mid-5th century providing historical support for the thesis. The exact position of Dalmatian in any classification is open to dispute.The TRANSROMANICA Association cordially invites you with the friendly support of the European Romanesque Center to the lecture “The Humanity of historical heritage – The (re)construction of a historical Identity in the Route of Romanesque”.
FOREWORD. Since its first publication in the Brazilian cultural journal Catolicismo in , Revolution and Counter-Revolution has gone through a number of editions in Portuguese, English, French, Italian, and Spanish.. The present edition is the first to be published digitally in the United States.
Apr 03, · Romantic novels you might be familiar with are Frankenstein (Mary Shelley), Ivanhoe (Sir Walter Scott), Nightmare Abbey (Thomas Love Peacock), and Reviews: 2. Free romantic period papers, essays, and research papers.
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Events that led to . I’m relatively closely related to this woman, although she does not know who I am. My grandmother was cousins with her mother or father, is, I think how it goes.