Joey Rahimi February 20, Kinship as a Mechanism for Social Integrating It is often demonstrated in many anthropological studies that kinship acts as an important means for social integrating in a given society. But is it a fair generalization to say that kinship always functions as a mechanism for social integration? Kinship refers to the relationships established through marriage or descent groups that has been proven in some societies to lead to social integrating, or the process of interaction with other individuals.
Other research has identified factors associated with the behavioral transmission of obesity risk from parents to their children 7.
Eating disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and eating in the absence of hunger all appear to be biologically heritable traits.
Thus, a child's family health history, along with shared behaviors and familial environments, must be considered in efforts to prevent and treat obesity 8.
Early Social Environments and Overweight Excessive caloric intake and a lack of physical activity are 2 major environmental causes of adolescent overweight.
Both structural and behavioral environments in which adolescent social networks operate are inextricably linked to their eating behaviors and physical activity levels.
Early childhood feeding practices are usually established in the home and often translate into eating patterns during adolescence.
Variations in food preferences and portions among preschool children are associated with the extent to which parents introduce new foods and encourage healthful eating habits 9.
Moreover, maternal feeding practices appear to influence the dietary patterns of girls, suggesting that the relational significance of parental influence on their children may be sex-specific The use of kinship as a mechanism for social integrating Likewise, early childhood activity levels translate into similar patterns of physical activity during adulthood Physical activity among adolescents is a social behavior, which is partly dependent on neighborhoods and recreational spaces.
Built environments can limit or facilitate levels of adolescent physical activity. Playgrounds that are accessible via sidewalks and safe intersections have been associated with higher levels of physical activity among youth Adolescent Overweight and Social Networks Mutual friendship ties, not merely biological family or relationships found within the household, can contribute to an adult's risk of obesity 13but little is known about whether the social mechanisms associated with weight gain in adults pertain to adolescents.
Studies of adolescent social networks have identified the extent to which clique formation, the tendency for people to form social ties with others who are similar 14are associated with weight status and physical activity. One study found that adolescent friendships tended to cluster on the basis of weight status The boys who were friends engaged in similar levels of physical activity; however, this finding was not noted within girl friendship networks Another study found similarities in the consumption of sweet foods and fast foods and types of physical activities among male friends, and female friends were similar in the time spent on computer-based leisure activities The mechanisms of social influence on adolescent overweight vary, but all depend on social interaction.
Parents can serve as role models, especially for younger children whose health behaviors are completely influenced by their parents' habits 18and older children may look to their friends, teachers, and community leaders as role models for their own health behaviors Indirect processes can occur through cultural or group norms and attitudes.
For example, adolescents' attitudes about body image can be influenced by social and cultural norms Communal Coping A social network approach fits within a socioecological model for obesity interventions, because social networks form and operate within the social contexts that influence health behaviors and behavior change Capitalizing on these interpersonal relationships may enhance the effectiveness of health promotion interventions Communal coping is a process in which interpersonal relationships are the conduit to behavior change among multiple members within a particular social network, such as families Its use in obesity prevention is novel, because it prioritizes relational over individual processes.
From a communal coping perspective, individuals define themselves in terms of their interconnectedness and relationships with their family, friends, neighbors, and community. Thus, when faced with a shared health problem, a cooperative approach to address the problem that involves family and friends may be particularly effective 23 Health interventions that use communal coping can target 3 interpersonal pathways Figure 1: Interventions can focus on educating family members about collective risk due to shared family history, environment, and behaviors, and promoting increased communication about family risk of overweight and associated diseases.
Similar efforts can motivate communication about shared risk factors among friends in neighborhoods and communities, leading to shared appraisals among those who are socially connected. The success of communal coping depends on cooperative support mechanisms.
Support can be directed at emotion-focused coping to address, for example, low self-esteem or psychological impacts of stigma associated with overweight and obesity. Cooperative support also can be geared toward problem-focused coping by addressing dietary behavior and physical activity.
Figure 1 The communal coping framework. This illustration shows the pathways through which increased risk due to shared genes, environment, and behavior may lead to the process of communal coping.
This figure shows two rectangles. Using Social Network Approaches to Strengthen Obesity Prevention Obesity prevention must account for the complexity of overweight, including a child's familial risk of obesity and social relationships.
Most previous interventions have focused on a single social sphere, such as household or school. Furthermore, family-oriented interventions often engage an affected child and a single caregiver, rather than considering the complex social environment that might surround children and their families.
An intervention that focuses on the family system will have limited success without consideration of the social influences on both parents' and children's behaviors outside of the family context. Similarly, a school-based intervention that does not consider the familial social environment or interpersonal influences within the neighborhood or community settings would also be limited.the interrelationships between social integration and the environment: the impact that different patterns of social relations have on the state of the environment, and the influence of the environmentŠand especially environmental degradationŠon social structures and institutions.
A kinship nomenclature is a mechanism whose function is the classifica- 6 By “family,” we mean a bilateral social unit based on marriage; it includes primarily parents, children, and, secondarily, kindred on both sides. A PROBLEM IN KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY The clan, like many other social institutions, has a beginning, a period.
We might try to reduce these intuitions to a definition: a social structure is a system of geographically dispersed rules and practices that influence the actions and outcomes of large numbers of social actors. Integrating Windows Live ID, Google and Facebook Accounts with SharePoint - White Paper Federated authentication mechanism handles authentication by external providers which send the token back to SharePoint.
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Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. The underlying neural mechanisms for this and other examples of multisensory integration in social behaviors are unclear. One possibility is that a small number of defined brain circuits like the MeA serve as hubs to receive direct convergent sensory inputs from multiple modalities.